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天宇超微微粉碎技术用于中药粉剂加工初探
添加时间:2015-07-30    阅读次数:3627

超微粉化是医用药品提高药效的基础。西药微粉化可提高药效,降低用药量,早已得到证明,并广泛用不动声色西药制药中。中药也不例外,绝大多数中药是天然的动、植物,药效成分通常分布于细胞内与细胞间质且以细胞内为主,超细粉碎后,细胞壁被破碎,细胞内有效成分得以充分暴露出来,这样的药物进入体内后,有效成分的释放速度及释放量会大幅度提高,用药量随之大幅度减少,而疗效却不会降低,反能提高。在传统中药炮制中,对一些珍贵药材或不适宜用煎煮方法的药材,也采用研细磨粉冲服的方法,以达到减少用量,提高疗效的目的。
Ultra fine powder is the basis of improving medical drugs. Western medicine powder can raise the effect, reduce the dosage, has been demonstrated, and are widely used in western medicine quietly. Chinese medicine is no exception, the vast majority of traditional Chinese medicine is natural animals and plants, medicinal ingredients normally distributed in intracellular and intercellular matter and the intracellular mainly, ultrafine grinding, cell wall was broken, the active ingredient in cell can be fully exposed, such a drug into the body, the release rate of effective components and release will greatly increase dosage along with greatly reduced, but its curative effect is not reduced, to improve. In the traditional Chinese medicine processing, to some precious medicinal herbs or not suitable for medicinal herbs decocting method, also used research methods of fine grinding blunt, in order to reduce the amount, improve the efficacy of.
据有关研究报告显示,采用常规方式粉碎的中药末,其单个粒子常由数个或数十个细胞所组成,细胞的破壁率极低。因药物粒子内部的朋效分将穿过几个或数十个细胞壁及细胞膜方可释放出来,释出速度很慢,又因药物在体内停留的时间有限,在低速释放的情况下释出率也不会高;药物粒子粗,吸附在肠壁上的可能性也会减少,其中一部分药物粒子的成分在未完全释放出来之前就被排出体外,使药物的利用度进一步降低。
According to relevant research report, the conventional way to crush the Chinese medicine end. The single particle often consists of several or tens of cells. And cell broken rate is extremely low. Due to the drug inside the particle friends performance will pass through several or dozens of cell wall and cell membrane party released release speed is very slow, and because of the limited time of drug in the body to stay. In the slow release of the release rate is not high; drug particle diameter, in the intestinal wall of the possibility of adsorption will also reduce the, the composition of a portion of the drug particles before is not fully released out were eliminated from the body, drug utilization further reduce.
若将植物药材经过细胞级微粉碎后,其有效成分被人体吸收则较为简单。药物进入胃中,可溶性成分在胃液作用下即溶解,进入小肠后溶解的成分开始被吸收。由于药物为超细粒子,其不溶性成分也极易附着在肠壁上,药物成分会快速通过肠壁吸收,进入血液,而且这些超微粒子因附着力强,排出体外所需时间较长,提高了药物的吸收率。此外药物成分从细胞内向细胞外迁移的过程所需时间缩短,不但吸收速度会明显加快,而且吸收量也会大增加。
If the plant material after the cell level micro grinding, its active ingredient is absorbed by the human body is relatively simple. The drug enters the stomach and the soluble component is dissolved in the gastric juice, which is absorbed by the dissolved ingredients in the small intestine. Due to the drug for ultrafine particles, it does not dissolve component is easily attached on the intestinal wall, pharmaceutical ingredients will be quickly absorbed through the intestinal wall, into the blood and the ultrafine particles as a result of the strong adhesion excreted required a long time to improve the rate of absorption of the drug. In addition, the process of drug composition from cell to cell migration is shortened, not only the absorption rate will be significantly accelerated, but also the amount of absorption will be greatly increased.
对于矿物类药材,相当一部分为水溶性物质,其细度越高利用度亦越高。这与一些难溶性化学药物的处理思路相同。通过提高药物细度增大其比率表面积,则可改善体内吸收量及速度。
For mineral medicines, a considerable part of the water soluble material, the higher the degree of fineness of the higher. This is the same as some of the difficult to deal with chemical drugs. By increasing the fineness of the drug to increase the surface area, it can improve the absorption quantity and speed of the body.
中药的细胞级微粉碎后其混合均质也会提高。药材粉碎混合均匀度(也称为均质化)应以细度为基础,粒度越细,其均匀度越高。但由于静电及吸附作用,一般物料越细,其均质化越为困难。这是由于中药一般含率均为6%以上,且有的又含有一定油性及挥发性成分,属两种极性物质的混合。在进行细胞级微粉碎的过程中,通过高强度剪切力使其均匀混合,可过到液相混合及乳化的效果。实际上在混合粉碎过程中,由于细胞内水分的影响,物料的表面会呈半湿润状态,其粒子与粒子之间结合较为牢固,具有相当的稳定性。其油性及挥发性成分在混合粉碎的同时吸附在一些固体及半液态成分的表面,通过药材中某些具有表面活性的物质使其易于同亲水性成分相亲和,达到均质的目的。若将其放入水中搅拌,也不会产生油性与水性成分之间的偏析。由于细胞级微粉碎,会将药材中的油细胞打破的同时进行均质,使得含有挥发性成分的复方中药由于条件的不同而产生挥发性降低或提高的现象。经过均质复方中药,其油性及挥发性成分可以在进入胃中很快分散均匀,因药物均质的作用在小肠中会均匀的同其他水溶性成分同步吸收。这与用常规粉碎方式粉碎的未破壁药材的吸收速度大相径庭。
After the Chinese traditional Chinese medicine, the mixed homogeneity of the cell level is also improved. The mixed homogeneity of the medicinal materials (also known as homogenization) should be based on the fineness, the finer the grain size, the higher the uniformity. But because of the static electricity and the adsorption effect, the more fine the material is, the more difficult the homogenization is. This is due to the general rate of Chinese medicine are more than 6%, and some contain a certain amount of oil and volatile components, is a mixture of two polar substances. In the process of cell grade micro grinding, the effect of the mixture of the liquid phase and the emulsion can be mixed by the high strength shear force. In the process of mixing and grinding, the surface of the material is semi - humid due to the moisture content of the cell, and the combination between the particles and the particles is firm and has considerable stability. The oily and volatile components in a mixture of crushed the simultaneous adsorption in the surface of the solid and semi liquid composition by Chinese herbal medicine with some surface active material so that it is easy to with hydrophilic components dating and, to achieve homogeneous. If you put it into the water, it will not produce the segregation between oil and water. Due to cellular level pulverizing, will break the oil cells in Chinese herbal medicines and homogeneous, which contain volatile components of compound Chinese medicine due to the different conditions and produce volatile decrease or increase of the phenomenon. After homogenization of compound traditional Chinese medicine, volatile oil and oil can be dispersed uniformly in entering the stomach very quickly, because drug homogeneous in the small intestine will evenly with other water soluble components simultaneously absorb. The absorption rate of the conventional way be quite different crushing crushing herbs not broken.

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